By Johanna Laybourn-Parry BSc, MSc, PhD (auth.)
General Editor: Peter Calow, division of Zoology, college of Sheffield, England the most goal of this sequence can be to demonstrate and to give an explanation for the way in which organisms 'make a dwelling' in nature. on the center of this - their func tional biology - is the best way organisms gather after which utilize assets in metabolism, move, development, copy, and so forth. those approaches will shape the elemental framework of the entire books within the sequence. every one publication will be aware of a specific taxon (species, kin, classification or perhaps phylum) and may compile details at the shape, body structure, ecology and evolutionary biology of the gang. the purpose might be not just to explain how organisms paintings, but additionally to contemplate why they've got come to paintings in that means. via focusing on taxa that are popular, it really is was hoping that the sequence won't merely illustrate the good fortune of choice, but additionally exhibit the limitations imposed upon it through the physiological, morphological and developmental limita tions of the teams. one other very important characteristic of the sequence should be its organismic orienta tion. every one e-book will emphasise the significance of practical integra tion within the day by day lives and the evolution of organisms. this is often the most important seeing that, notwithstanding it can be real that organisms could be regarded as collections of gene-determined features, they however have interaction with their atmosphere as built-in wholes and it truly is during this context that exact features were subjected to average choice and feature evolved.
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Additional resources for A Functional Biology of Free-Living Protozoa
B. Modes of Feeding (i) Protozoa with a Cytostome or Cell Mouth The cytostome is the usual form of mouth encountered among ciliates and some flagellates, but the tentacles of the suctorians are also cell mouths of a very different structure. The cytostomes of ciliates show a progression from the relatively simple to the complex. The gymnostomes 34 How Protozoa Obtain Energy show a simple oral structure in which most species are without oral ciliature, and the cytostome is at the surface of the body in an apical or lateral position and leads into a well-developed cytopharynx supported by bundles of microtubules or nematodesmata.
During the vacuolar condensation phase in Actinophrys numerous small vesicles accumulate around the periphery of the vacuole, presumably playing a role in digestion (Patterson and Hausmann, 1981). Similarly in Oimacostomium virens, an algivorous ciliate, the vacuole condenses, after lysosomes surrounding the vacuole fuse with it (Fischer-Defoy and Hausmann, 1982). During digestion the contents of the digestive vacuole become progressively more acid as enzymatic action proceeds, but eventually change to alkaline.
E. Symbiotic Relationships in Protozoa Symbiotic relationships exist between free-living Protozoa and some fungi, but more commonly with bacteria and various algae. Among the latter are some blue-green algae, referred to as cyanellae, green algae termed zoochlorellae, and dinoflagellates usually called zooxanthellae. A large number of ciliate and sarcodine species carry such symbionts. They are less common in flagellate Protozoa. A range of protozoan 60 How Protozoa Obtain Energy species involved in symbiotic associations with algae has been reviewed by Curds (1977).
A Functional Biology of Free-Living Protozoa by Johanna Laybourn-Parry BSc, MSc, PhD (auth.)