By Chet A. Creider, Jane Tapsubei Creider
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Additional info for A grammar of Nandi
I will try to support this claim by showing that the efforts of some linguists to extend this classification to languages of the latter type have been unsuccessful. In order to provide an explicit description of the distinction between accusative and Grammatical relations: the evidence against their necessity and universality 23 ergative systems, linguists have found it convenient to use three main ‘core’ concepts, which are generally symbolized as S, A and O; of these, S represents the single obligatory argument of intransitive sentences, whereas A and O represent the two obligatory arguments of transitive sentences of which the former (A) is typically the controller of actions and the latter (O) is typically the affected argument (see Dixon 1979, Comrie 1981, Andrews 1985).
It should not prevent the remaining languages from having their syntactic processes being stated in terms of semantic and pragmatic relations only, without resorting to any additional (and irrelevant) grammatical relations (see DeLancy 1985). 1 PRELIMINARIES I have argued in the previous chapter that there do occur languages like Kannada in which (a) the representations of semantic and pragmatic relations are kept distinct, and, because of this, (b) the semantic and pragmatic relations themselves are used for controlling the various grammatical processes that occur in the language, depending on whether they are of semantic or pragmatic relevance respectively.
Examples: (24a) (24b) (25a) (25b) naːnu I-nom ‘I scolded him’ avanannu him-acc naːnu avanige I-nom him-dat ‘I scolded him’ (in his presence) naːyi avanannu him-acc dog-nom ‘The dog bit him’ (affected patient) naːyi avanige dog-nom him-dat bayde scolded bayde scolded kaḍiyitu bit kaḍiyitu bit Semantics and pragmatics in kannada 36 ‘The dog bit him’ (experienced patient) The verb duːru ‘to blame’ contrasts with bayyu ‘to scold’ given above in this respect. The former activity is generally carried out in the absence of the victim, and hence, the person concerned is being regarded as the affected (undergoer) rather than as the experiencer, whereas the latter action (‘scolding’) can be carried out either in the victim’s presence or in his/her absence and hence it can take both these types of arguments as shown above (undergoer in 24a and experiencer in 24b).
A grammar of Nandi by Chet A. Creider, Jane Tapsubei Creider