By Riikka Halme
Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in line with the authentic Namibian usual) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it really is spoken through way over part one million humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity comprises the audio system of alternative closely-related Wambo types in Angola. those languages were studied really little, and the research in their tonal structures has been rather ignored. the current e-book is the 1st cartoon of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most goal is to supply an research of the tonal approach of this language. accordingly the research discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical homes. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking group in Angola for approximately part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the feel that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. which will aid the reader to stick with the argumentation of the tonal research, this e-book is organised in this sort of means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, via discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor be aware different types. After that, the research is expounded to the broader context of study on Guthrie's team R languages, particularly the Wambo languages. ultimately, the reader reveals nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.
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Additional info for A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies)
Where shall we go? When did it happen? Why are you here? How do you open it? How did they behave? How wide is it? How are you? pronoun determiner adverb of place adverb of time adverb of reason adverb of means adverb of manner adverb of degree adjective 28 Question phrases What and how can combine with other words to form phrases. 1 What can come before a noun. ~ Ten eleven. What colour shirt was he wearing? ~ Blue, I think. What kind of/type of/sort of computer have you got? ~ Oh, it's just a desktop machine.
But when a question word is the object, complement or adverbial (not the subject), then there is inversion of the subject and auxiliary. For details, • 23. What will tomorrow bring? Whose is this umbrella? PAGE 29 25 Wh-questions: more details NOTE a A question can sometimes be just a question word. • 40 I'm going to London. ~ When? b A question word can be part of a sub clause. What did you think I said? ) When would everyone like to leave? ) c A question can have two question words. When and where did this happen?
I'm enjoying it. NOTE What... like? asks a b o u t quality. Sometimes it h a s a very similar m e a n i n g to How...? / What was the film like? But What... like? does not refer to well-being. How's your brother? ~ Oh, he's fine, thanks. What's your brother like? ~ Well, he's much quieter than I am. What does your brother look like? ~ He's taller than me, and he's got dark hair. 5 A special pattern with why Why (not) can come before a noun phrase or a verb. Why the panic? ) Look at our prices - why pay more?
A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies) by Riikka Halme