By Karsten Schmidtke-Bode
This publication provides the 1st finished typology of objective clause buildings within the world’s languages. according to a stratified type pattern of eighty languages, it uncovers the harmony and variety of the morphosyntactic capability during which purposive relatives are coded, and discusses the prestige of goal clauses within the syntactic and conceptual area of advanced sentences. reasons for considerably recurrent coding styles are couched in a usage-based method of language constitution, which can pay due realization to the cognitive and communicative pressures on utilization occasions related to function clauses, to frequency distributions of grammatical offerings in corpora, and to the ways that utilization personal tastes conventionalize in pathways of diachronic swap. The publication integrates assorted prior strands of analysis on objective clauses with an intensive empirical research in its personal correct and hence displays the present cutting-edge of crosslinguistic study into this certain form of adverbial clause.An appendix to A Typology of objective Clauses are available at the author's web site: www.karsten-schmidtke.net/purpose
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Additional info for A Typology of Purpose Clauses
Apart from TAM distinctions, languages may also indicate finiteness by means of verbal agreement (indexation) markers. By implication, a lack of such markers is taken to instantiate a non-finite or deranked construction. Kiowa, for example, has an incorporated purpose construction which lacks pronominal indexation 37 38 A Typology of Purpose Clauses prefixes. The main verb, by contrast, carries precisely such a prefix: (12) Kiowa (Kiowa-Tanoan: Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas; Watkins 1984: 229) Gyà-kí·+kɔ·tɔ+tòt.
This yields the results shown in Table 8. 21). That is, the construction-specific findings are basically replicated at the language level. These results can be strengthened by comparison to previous research on a much larger typological sample. e. more than twice as many data points as surveyed here. 4%) languages which have only balanced purpose clauses. 23). It is documented in WALS and displayed here in Figure 6. The map already hints at the importance of geography as a factor influencing structural distributions.
The last and trickiest category is that of serial verbs, in which two verb forms are welded into a complex verbal expression, as in Acehnese: (13) Acehnese (Austronesian: Indonesia; Durie 1985: 196) Ku = jak = seumayang kee dilee u = krueng. ’ Typical serial verbs are used to conceptualize the two situations involved as being part of one complex event (Payne 1997: 307), and it is the entire complex that can receive TAM or person marking. a. ‘not applicable’. We can now proceed to analysing the typological distribution of deranking in purpose clauses.
A Typology of Purpose Clauses by Karsten Schmidtke-Bode